Dissolving Pulp dari Kayu dan Nonkayu: Tinjauan Proses Pembuatan dan Karakteristiknya

Reynaldo Biantoro(1*), Krisna Septiningrum(2), Teddy Kardiansyah(3)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Industri Agro
(3) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v10i01.294

Abstract

Pemanfaatan derivat selulosa menjadi viskosa rayon saat ini berkembang secara signifikan; dalam hal ini pulp khusus yang digunakan adalah dissolving pulp. Dissolving pulp ini memiliki karakteristik tertentu seperti kandungan selulosa tinggi (> 90%), kadar hemiselulosa rendah, lignin dan kandungan ekstraktif (kurang dari 10%), reaktivitas selulosa tinggi dengan tingkat distribusi berat molekul dan kecerahan tinggi, serta memiliki viskositas sekitar 200-300 dm3/kg. Saat ini, pembuatan dissolving pulp diarahkan untuk penggunaan bahan baku kayu dan non-kayu yang melimpah dengan menggunakan metode ramah lingkungan. Secara umum terdapat empat metode utama termasuk teknologi konvensional dan terbaru yang dapat digunakan untuk membuat dissolving pulp seperti: 1. Metode bisulfit menggunakan gas SO2 dengan yield sekitar 55 -75%; 2. Metode sulfit-soda yang mampu menghasilkan kandungan selulosa yang tinggi (hingga 96%); 3. Pra-hidrolisis kraft yang merupakan metode populer dalam pembuatan dissolving pulp dan 4. Konversi pulp kertas menjadi dissolving pulp. Dalam makalah ini dibahas pembuatan dissolving pulp menggunakan enzim seperti xilanase dan mono komponen endoglukanase dan kombinasi antara mekanik, kimia dan metode enzimatik.

 

Kata kunci: dissolving pulp, pra-hidrolisis kraft, enzim, konversi pulp kertas

Keywords

dissolving pulp; pra-hidrolisis kraft; enzim; konversi pulp kertas

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