PENGARUH APLIKASI JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH PADA BIOPULPING RAMI (Boehmeria nivea) TERHADAP KUALITAS PULP BELUM PUTIH (EFFECT OF WHITE ROT FUNGI APPLICATION IN BIOPULPING OF RAMIE (Boehmeria Nivea) ON THE QUALITY OF UNBLEACHED PULP)

Chandra Apriana Purwita(1*), Hendro Risdianto(2)
(1) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(2) Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25269/jsel.v6i02.95

Abstract

The research of white rot fungi application in biopulping ramie has been done to obtain the effective fungus. The study was conducted in 3 stages: biopulping, cooking, and manufacture of pulp handsheets. The biopulping of ramie was done by varying four species of fungi which were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Marasmius sp., Trametes hirsuta, and Trametes versicolor, with temperature of ± 28°C for 7 days. The cooking was done on ramie from selected biopulping treatment and compared with untreated one. The experiments was carried out by soda cooking in a rotating digester at 12% active alkaline, ratio of the solid to liquid 1: 5, temperature of 165 °C, time of 3.5 hours. Next step was the manufacture of pulp handsheets. The observations were conducted on percent lignin removal, Kappa number, burst and tear index. The results showed that Marasmius sp. with the laccase activity of 0.1638 U/mL was the best with 40.4% of lignin removal degree. The ramie cooking process with Marasmius sp. treatment produced unbleached pulp with 7.2% lower Kappa number compared to the untreated one. The pulp that has been treated with Marasmius sp. produced better quality unbleached pulp with the physical properties of burst and tear index of 10.52 mNm2 /g and 1.24 kN/g, respectively.




ABSTRAK


Penelitian aplikasi jamur pelapuk putih pada biopulping rami telah dilakukan dengan tujuan mendapatkan jenis jamur yang efektif. Penelitian dilakukan dalam 3 tahap : biopulping, pemasakan, dan pembuatan lembaran pulp. Biopulping rami dilakukan dengan variasi 4 spesies jamur, yaitu Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Marasmius sp., Trametes hirsuta, dan Trametes versicolor, pada kondisi suhu ±28 °C selama 7 hari. Pemasakan dilakukan terhadap rami dari perlakuan biopulping terpilih dan dibandingkan dengan rami tanpa perlakuan jamur. Percobaan pemasakan dilakukan dengan proses soda dalam digester berputar pada kondisi alkali aktif 12%, rasio padatan terhadap cairan pemasak 1:5, suhu 165°C, waktu 3,5 jam. Selanjutnya, dilakukan pembuatan lembaran pulp rami. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap persentase penyisihan lignin, bilangan Kappa, indek sobek, dan indeks retak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Marasmius sp. dengan aktivitas lakase 0,1638 U/mL merupakan yang terbaik dengan derajat penyisihan lignin 40,4%. Proses pemasakan rami dengan perlakuan Marasmius sp. menghasilkan pulp belum putih dengan bilangan Kappa lebih rendah 7,2% dibandingkan tanpa perlakuan jamur. Kualitas pulp yang telah diberi perlakuan jamur Marasmius sp. menghasilkan pulp belum putih yang lebih baik, dengan sifat fisik indeks retak dan indeks sobek berturut-turut 10,52 mNm2 /g dan 1,24 kN/g.

Kata kunci: rami, biopulping, penyisihan lignin, jamur pelapuk putih

Keywords

ramie; biopulping; lignin removal; white root fungi

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